Major events of Indian history:-The history of our country India is so detailed that it is not only difficult but also impossible to reveal it in a few pages. From the emergence of the Indus Valley Civilization to the formation of Narendra Modi’s government in the country, there are hundreds of such incidents, without mentioning which justice cannot be done to history. But it is not possible to mention all of them here, so in this blog we will mention only those important events, which will not only increase your knowledge but students preparing for competitive exams will also be able to benefit from it.
Event: Development of Indus Valley Civilization
Year: 3300-1700 BC
Description: The authentic information about the history of India starts from here. This civilization developed on the banks of Indus and Saraswati rivers. Mohenjodaro, Kalibanga, Lothal, Harappa, Rakhigarhi and Dholavira were the major centers of this civilization.
Event: Birth of Lord Mahavir
Year: 599 BC
Description: Lord Mahavir was born in Kshatriya Kundalpur of Vaishali Republic. He guided the world through his teachings. He attained salvation in 523 BC.
Event: Birth of Gautam Buddha
Year: 563 BC
Description: Gautam Buddha was born at a place called Lumbini near Kapilvastu, the then capital of the Shakya Republic. He is considered a great philosopher, scientist and social reformer of his time. Today his followers who believe in Buddhism are spread all over the world.
Event: Arrival of Alexander the Great in India
Year: 327-26 BC
Description: Alexander, the ruler of Greece, is considered to be the first foreign invader on India. Although Alexander could not conquer India, his arrival in India definitely marked the beginning of the land route between Europe and India.
Event: Establishment of Maurya Dynasty
Year: 269-232 BC
Description: This period was of the rule of Ashoka, the majestic king of India. The Maurya ruler Ashoka Chakravarti was the king and he had tied India in one thread with his majesty. It was during his reign that the war of Kalinga (261 BC) took place, after which Ashoka took the path of non-violence after getting distracted by the horrors of war.
Event: Beginning of Vikram Samvat
Year: 57-30 BC
Description: This period witnessed many important events in Indian history. Vikram Samvat started. The Satavahana and Pandaya dynasty emerged in the south.
Event: Rise of Gupta DynastyYear: 320 AD
Description: After the fall of the Maurya dynasty, there was a political vacuum in India. This void was filled by the rulers of the Gupta dynasty and established a powerful dynasty in India. This period of Gupta dynasty is considered to be the golden age of India.
Event: Renaissance of Hinduism
Year : 380-413 AD
Description: During this period India was ruled by Chandragupta Vikramaditya. This was also the period of Kalidas, the worshiper of literature.
Event: Impact of Hindu rule
Year : 606-645 AD
Description: This period was the reign of the Hindu ruler Harshavardhana, who ruled the whole of India. At the same time, the Chinese traveler Hiuen Tsang had visited India. Harshavardhana was the last Hindu ruler, who ruled the whole of India except Punjab.
Event: Beginning of Hijri period
Year : 622 AD
Description: Its beginning is believed to be from when Hazrat Muhammad had migrated from Mecca to Medina. This is a lunar calendar, which is used not only in Muslim countries, but Muslims all over the world use this calendar to calculate their festivals.
Event: Invasion of the Arabs
Year : 712 AD
Description: In the same year, Sindh was attacked in the west by Arab invaders under the leadership of Muhammad bin Qasim.
Incident: Invasion of Mahmud Ghaznavi
Year : 1025 AD
Description : Arab invader Mahmud Ghaznavi attacked India and caused heavy loot in the western part of the country, and looted and destroyed the famous Somnath temple.
Event: First Battle of Tarain
Year : 1191 AD
Description: There was a war in Tarain between the Indian ruler Prithviraj Chauhan and the Arab invader Muhammad Ghori, in which Muhammad Ghori was defeated.
Event: Second Battle of Tarain
Year : 1192 AD
Description: Once again with heavy preparation, Muhammad Ghori attacked India and fought with Prithviraj Chauhan in the plain of Tarain. Prithviraj Chauhan had to face defeat in this war.
Event: Establishment of the Slave Dynasty
Year : 1206 AD
Description: Slave dynasty was established in India by Qutubuddin Aibak. Qutbuddin Aibak was a slave soldier of Muhammad Ghori, whom Ghori made the emperor here after his conquest of India. This dynasty ruled Delhi till 1290 AD.
Event: Discovery of India by Europeans
Year : 1497-98 AD
Description: In the year 1497, the Portuguese traveler Vasco da Gama set out on the discovery of India and after a journey of almost a year, he reached the coast of Calicut in Kerala in 1498. This is considered to be the first authentic step by any European on Indian soil.
Event: Rise of the Mughal Empire
Year : 1526 AD
Description: This year the great Mughal ruler Akbar had ascended the power of Delhi. He is not only known as a great ruler of India, but he is also known for running a new religion, Din-e-Ilahi.
Event: Establishment of East India Company
Year: 1600 AD
Description: The East India Company was established in Britain on 31 December 1600 to increase trade with India. The Queen of Britain gave 21 years to this company to do business with India.
Event: Establishment of the United Dutch East India Company
Year : 1602 AD
Description: This was the first trading company of Netherlands to come to India from Europe. The main objective of this company was to capture the spice market of India.
Event: Arrival of British Army in India
Year : 1608-1612 AD
Description: In the year 1608, the first contingent of the British army reached the coast of Surat. It was here that the struggle for supremacy between the British and the Portuguese began. This struggle went on for about four years.
Event: Beginning of British rule over India
Year : 1668 AD
Description: The British army occupied Bombay, and Prince Charles II of Britain handed over the rule of Bombay to the East India Company.
Event : Establishment of the city of Calcutta
Year : 1690 AD
Description: British officer Job Charnock laid the foundation of the city of Calcutta.
Event: Attack of Nadir Shah
Year : 1739 AD
Description: The Iranian emperor Nadir Shah invaded India. In Karnal, there was a war between the Mughal emperor Muhammad Shah and Nadir Shah of Delhi, and Muhammad Shah was defeated. Nadir Shah captured Delhi.
Event: Battle of Plassey
Year : 1757 AD
Description: The British army under the leadership of Robert Clyb started the conquest of India. In its first phase, the British army hero Robert Clyb attacked Bengal, and he had an encounter with the army of Sirajuddaula, the ruler of Bengal, in the plain of Plassey near Murshidabad. Sirajudaula was defeated in this war, and Bengal was occupied by the British.
Event: Third Battle of Panipat
Year : 1761 AD
Description: On January 14, 1761, there was a war between the Indian king Maharana Pratap and the Afghan ruler Ahmed Shah Abdali in the field of Panipat. Maharana Pratap was defeated in this fierce battle. Earlier, in the two battles of Panipat, the Afghan army was defeated by the army of Maharana Pratap.
Event: Establishment of Khalsa Panth
Year : 1801 AD
Description: The Sikh ruler Maharaja Ranjit Singh founded the Khalsa Panth in Lahore, and along with the Kashmiri Pandits invaded Afghanistan through the Khyber Pass.
Event: Treaty of Amritsar
Year : 1809 AD
Description: The East India Company made a treaty with Maharaja Ranjit Singh in Amritsar, Punjab, and increased its trading activity here.
Incident: Ban on the practice of Sati
Year : 1829 AD
Description: Taking steps in the course of social reform, the British government banned the practice of sati ie the practice of committing suicide with the husband of Hindu widows in a burning pyre.
Event: First War of Independence
Year : 1857-58 AD
Description: Under the leadership of Mangal Pandey, the Indian soldiers of the British army blew the trumpet of rebellion against the British rule. Although the British government called this rebellion ‘Sepoy Rebellion’, but historians named it ‘First War of Independence’. During this rebellion, the rebels put the last Mughal ruler Bahadur Shah Zafar on the throne of Delhi. But soon the British controlled the rebellion and recaptured Delhi.
Event : Government of India Act
Year : 1858 AD
Description: In August 1858, the British government took over the rule of India from the East India Company, and then in 1877, the Queen of Britain was declared the ruler of India.
Event: Establishment of the Indian National Congress
Year : 1885 AD
Description: The Indian National Congress was established on 28 December 1885 under the leadership of AO Hroom, an English officer, with the objective of giving a political basis to British rule in India. In later years as a political party, it played a major role in India’s freedom struggle.
Event: Partition of Bengal
Year : 1905 AD
Description: Under the policy of ‘divide and rule’, the British government divided Bengal into two parts – East Bengal and West Bengal on the basis of Hindu and Muslim majority area.
Events: Rise of Mahatma Gandhi and Beginning of Indian Freedom Struggle
Year : 1916 AD
Description : A new hero emerged in India which was struggling for independence. While living in Africa, Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, distracted by the atrocities of the British, came to India and took the reins of the freedom struggle. By making Satyagraha and non-violence the basic mantras, Gandhi succeeded in finally freeing India from British rule.
Event: Indian independence movement and India’s independence
Year: 1917 AD – 1948 AD
1917 AD Champaran and Kheda Satyagraha
1919 AD Jallianwala incident, Rowlatt Act and Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms.
1920 AD The beginning of the non-cooperation movement and the Khilafat movement.
Chauri Chaura incident in 1922 AD
Arrival of Simon Commission in India in 1927
In 1929, a bomb was thrown by Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar Dutt in the Central Assembly. Demand for Poorna Swaraj by Congress.
Salt Satyagraha and Civil Disobedience Movement started from 1930 AD Dandi.
1931 AD Gandhi-Irwin Pact. Bhagat Singh, Rajguru and Sukhdev were hanged. First Round Table Conference in London.
1932 AD Poona Pact, Second Round Table Conference in London.
Arrival of Cripps Mission in India in March 1942 AD. Start of Quit India Movement. Formation of Indian National Army by Subhash Chandra Bose.
1947 AD Indian Independence Act Bill passed by the British Government. Division of India. Rise of India as an independent nation.
Incident: The assassination of Mahatma Gandhi and the merger of princely states with India
Year : 1948 AD
Description: The assassination of Mahatma Gandhi on 30 January. Limited war between India and Pakistan over Kashmir’s rights. Under the leadership of Home Minister Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, the merger of the princely states into India.
Event: Rise of the Republic of India on the world map
Year : 1950 AD
Description: Indian Constitution came into force on 26 January and India became a republic nation.
Event: Indo-China war
Year : 1962 AD
Description: Beginning of war between India and China over boundary determination. Goa, Daman and Diu got independence from Portuguese rule.
Event: Indo-Pakistani War
Year : 1965 AD
Description: A war broke out between India and Pakistan over Kashmir. With the intervention of Russia, Indian Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri signed a ceasefire agreement with Pakistan in Tashkent.
Event: Rise of Indira Gandhi
Year : 1966 AD
Description: After the death of Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri in Tashkent, Indira Gandhi became the Prime Minister of India and the Indira era began in India.
Event: Indo-Pakistani War
Year : 1971 AD
Description: In view of the atrocities and instability there by the Pakistani ruler in East Pakistan, India intervened, and the war with Pakistan started. Pakistan got a crushing defeat in this war, and India liberated East Pakistan from Pakistan, and a new nation Bangladesh emerged. After the defeat of Pakistan, there was an agreement between India and Pakistan in Shimla. This agreement was signed by Prime Minister Indira Gandhi on behalf of India and Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto on behalf of Pakistan.
Event: Nuclear test
Year : 1974 AD
Description: Creating history in the field of science and defence, India conducted a successful underground nuclear test in Pokhran, Rajasthan.
Event: Declaration of Emergency
Year : 1975 AD
Description: In order to stop the chaos spread due to rising corruption and rising inflation in the country, the Indira Gandhi government announced the imposition of emergency. Thousands of political opponents were imprisoned during the Emergency. During this, a wave of outrage had spread among the general public due to forced sterilization.
Incident: The ouster of Indira Gandhi and the formation of the first non-Congress governments at the Center and in the states
Year : 1977 AD
Description: In the general elections held after the end of the Emergency, the Congress had to face a crushing defeat, and Indira Gandhi was out of power. The Janata Party government was formed at the center under the leadership of Morarji Desai. The Communist Party of India government was formed in West Bengal.
Incident: Split in Janata Party
Year : 1979 AD
Description: Due to infighting in the ruling Janata Party at the Centre, there was a split. Morarji Desai had to leave the post of Prime Minister. Chaudhary Charan Singh became the Prime Minister of the country.
Event: Congress’s return to power
Year : 1980 AD
Description: Chaudhary Charan Singh also could not run the government for long, and mid-term elections had to be held in the country. Congress got victory in this election and Indira Gandhi once again became the Prime Minister of India.
Incident: Operation Blue Star, assassination of Indira Gandhi and appointment of Rajiv Gandhi as Prime Minister
Year : 1984 AD
Description : Indira Gandhi carried out a military operation under Operation Blue Star to remove Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale and other terrorists hiding in the Golden Temple of Amritsar, affected by terrorism. Shortly after this, she was assassinated by three Sikh bodyguards who were among Indira Gandhi’s bodyguards in New Delhi. After the assassination of Indira Gandhi, there were anti-Sikh riots across the country, in which thousands of Sikhs were killed. Rajiv Gandhi became the new Prime Minister of the country.
Event: Indian military operation in Sri Lanka
Year : 1987 AD
Description: Under an agreement between India and Sri Lanka in LTTE’s terrorism-prone neighboring country Sri Lanka, India sent its army to establish peace there.
Event: Formation of SEBI
Year : 1988 AD
Description: SEBI Act 1992 was passed in the Indian Parliament on 12th April with the objective of monitoring the business of Indian stock market and the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) was formed. This organization came into existence from 1992.
Incident: The defeat of the Congress in the general elections and the formation of the National Front government
Year : 1989 AD
Description: In the general elections held this year, the Congress had to face a crushing defeat once again. The coalition of several parties at the center led to the formation of the National Front government under the leadership of VP Singh. This government had the support of the Bharatiya Janata Party from outside.
Incident: Rajiv Gandhi’s assassination, mid-term elections in the country, PV Narasimha Rao became the Prime Minister, the era of economic reforms started
Year : 1991 AD
Description: Rajiv Gandhi was assassinated by the LTTE terrorist squad during an election meeting in Sriperumbudur, Tamil Nadu. At this time, mid-term elections were being held in the country due to the Chandrashekhar government being reduced to a minority. After the election, PV Narasimha Rao of Congress became the Prime Minister of the country. Manmohan Singh was made the Finance Minister. He started a new era of economic reforms in the country.
Incident: Babri Masjid Demolition
Year : 1992 AD
Description: On December 6, a fierce mob in Ayodhya demolished the dome of the mosque located in the Ram Mandir-Babri Masjid complex. After this incident, communal riots took place in many parts of the country.
Event: Launch of mobile phone service
Year : 1995 AD
Description: Mobile phone service was started in the country, and the then Chief Minister of West Bengal Jyoti Basu started this service by calling from Calcutta.
Incident: Atal Bihari Vajpayee became Prime Minister, nuclear test
Year : 1998 AD
Description: After the general elections, the Bharatiya Janata Party emerged as the largest party, and the National Democratic Alliance (NDA) government was formed at the center under the leadership of Atal Bihari Vajpayee. In the same year India conducted its second nuclear test. After this test, the country also had to face the economic sanctions of the international community.
Event: US President Bill Clinton’s arrival in India, formation of three new states
Year : 2000 AD
Description: This year US President Bill Clinton visited India. On 15th November three new states Jharkhand, Uttarakhand and Chhattisgarh were formed.
Event: Quantum leap in the field of space. terrorist attack on indian parliament
Year : 2001 AD
Description: India successfully test-fired the PSLV (Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle) rocket, achieving great success in its space programme. Through this rocket, India became the fifth country to have the capability to put satellites in space. In the same year, there was a terrorist attack on Parliament, in which five soldiers posted in the security of Parliament were martyred.
Incident: Development of ‘Agni’ missile. APJ Abdul Kalam elected President. communal riots in gujarat
Year : 2002 AD
Description: India successfully test-fired the long-range ballistic missile ‘Agni’, achieving great success in the field of defense. The great scientist of the country APJ Abdul Kalam was elected the President of the country. In the same year, after several kar sevaks were killed in a train arson in Gujarat’s Godhra, there were fierce communal riots in Gujarat in which thousands of people were killed.
Event: First Woman President of India
Year : 2007 AD
Description: Smt. Pratibha Patil was elected the first woman President of the country.
Incident: Terrorist attack in Mumbai. Chandrayaan-1 launch
Year : 2008 AD
Description: Terrorists from Pakistan attacked and killed many innocent people at five places including Mumbai’s Taj Hotel, Victoria Terminal railway station. In the encounter with the security forces, all the terrorists were killed except one terrorist involved in the attack. There was heavy loss of life and property in this attack. In the same year, India successfully placed ‘Chandrayaan-1’ in the orbit of the Moon, taking a giant leap in space.
Event: Narendra Modi elected Prime Minister. launch of mangalyaan
Year : 2014 AD
Description: Formation of the first full majority non-Congress government in the country after independence. Bharatiya Janata Party leader and former Gujarat Chief Minister Narendra Bhai Modi became the Prime Minister of the country. India successfully launched ‘Mangalyaan’ as part of its ambitious space mission to study Mars.
Incident: Terrorist attack on Pathankot airbase. India’s surgical strike in Pakistan border. India became a member of MTCR (Missile Technology Control Regime). Demonetization of 1000 and 500 class denomination notes.
Year : 2016 AD
Description: On January 2, terrorists who entered India from the Pakistani border attacked the airbase in Pathankot, Punjab. Many soldiers were martyred in this attack. India retaliated by sending commandos to the Pakistani border area on the night of 29 September and carried out a covert surgical strike, causing heavy damage to terrorist camps. In the night of November 8 this year, the government took a historic and courageous step by banning the large notes of 1000 and 500. In common parlance, this move of the government was called demonetisation. In the same year, India became a member of the MTCR, a globally formed organization to prevent the spread of missile technology.